SAMR - Effective Use of Technology at the "Substitution" Level

The educator thoughtfully and appropriately uses technology to substitute instruction
Made by Friday Institute @ NC State

About this Micro-credential

Key Method

The educator understands the SAMR framework, appropriately uses technology by substitution, and articulates a rationale for using tech at the substitution level.

Method Components

What is SAMR?

SAMR is a model designed to help educators infuse technology into teaching and learning. SAMR provides a lens for educators to design, develop, and infuse digital learning experiences that utilize technology. SAMR stands for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. Educators create activities at all levels of SAMR based on what will best support student needs and instructional goals.

What is substitution in the SAMR model?

  • Substitution is when technology acts as a direct substitute for an activity and does not provide any functional change.
  • For example, using a word processor to write an assignment instead of using a paper and pen. For additional examples, see resource section.

Research & Resources

Supporting Research

  • Puentedura, R. “SAMR and TPCK: Intro to advanced practice.” February 12 (2010).
  • Cathy Cavanaugh Jace Hargis Tayeb Kamali Melissa Soto, (2013), “Substitution to augmentation: faculty adoption of iPad mobile learning in higher education”, Interactive Technology and Smart Education, Vol. 10 Iss 4 pp. 270 - 284.


  • Introduction to the SAMR Model: Dr. Ruben Puentedura developed the SAMR model as a way for teachers to evaluate how they are incorporating technology into their instructional practice. You can use SAMR to reflect upon how you are integrating technology into your classroom. Is it an act of Substitution? Augmentation? Modification? Or Redefinition?

Submission Requirements

Submission Guidelines & Evaluation Criteria

The following are items you must submit to earn this micro-credential. To earn this micro-credential, you must receive a “yes” evaluation for Parts 1, 2, and 3.

Part 1. Overview questions

  • Describe the instructional approach or activity for which you used technology to substitute for a non-technology-enabled instructional approach. How did you use technology to substitute for a non-technology-enabled approach (e.g., my students used a word processor to write a paper instead of paper and pen)?
  • Why did you think using technology to substitute for a low-tech instructional approach or activity was appropriate in this instructional approach or activity (as opposed to augmentation, modification, or redefinition)?

Part 2. Evidence/artifacts

Please provide evidence of your instructional approach or activity which included substitution, as well as definitive evidence that the students’ interactions were in line with your intended activity or lesson plans.

Artifacts can be images, videos, audios, walkthrough/observation, or student work samples.

Part 3. Reflection

Please reflect on all of the following questions in whatever format works for you (text, audio, video, visual, etc.):

  • How did substituting technology impact your teaching?
  • How did it change the way your students engaged?
  • How will this experience inform your practice moving forward?

Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Download to access the requirements and scoring guide for this micro-credential.
How to prepare for and earn this micro-credential - in a downloadable PDF document

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