Models and Modeling - Science

Educator investigates the use of models and modeling as they pertain to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and investigates resources for use in classrooms.
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About this Micro-credential

Key Method

The educator studies the use of models and modeling in the classroom; engages in a detailed analysis of the standards related to such, including the analysis of classroom tasks that address the standard; and devises a set of criteria for measuring students’ progress on the standards in that category appropriate to their grade level.

Method Components

Components and Implementation of Models and Modeling

  • Examine your own personal model of teacher decision-making used for planning, teaching, and reflection of lessons.
  • Use the model of teacher decision-making from Clough, Berg, and Olson to write a reflection of a recent lesson.
  • Learn about powerful uses of models in the science classroom and examples from a specific science discipline.
  • Learn about effective modeling strategies for use in a science classroom.
  • Identify models and modeling connections in NGSS; then design and teach a modeling lesson that supports student learning opportunities related to the standards under study.
  • Choose or create a measurement tool (rubric, standards-based grading criteria) that captures student performance related to the standards.
  • Analyze student performance related to the standards after students engage in the target lessons.
  • Write a reflection of the planning, implementation, and assessment of the models or modeling lesson.

Research & Resources

Supporting Research

There are many models used in science disciplines that represent the concepts and content used to help students learn science. While sometimes interchangeable in the literature with the term “models,” modeling in this context refers to a learning strategy used with students.•_ In this badge, you will investigate both models and modeling within your discipline and as connected to the NGSS standards. You will engage in readings about that content using the resources noted above to deepen your knowledge of the content area and then plan, implement, and study a lesson related to that content with your students.

While some of the resources above are relevant to a particular content area, many are cross-disciplinary.•_ Consult with your MMTP badge partner so that you can select good resources to explore. The ideas in this badge are specifically designed for the teaching and learning of secondary science. Similar distinctions exist in mathematics; the Models and Modeling (Mathematics) badge contains those resources.

Both Math and Science – A Model for Teacher Decision-Making

  • Clough, M. P., C. A. Berg, and J.K. Olson, “Promoting effective science teacher education and science teaching: A framework for teacher decision-making.” International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(4), 2009, pp. 821-847.

Science Resources

  • Laubichler, M., and G. Muller. Models in theoretical biology, 2007. Retrieved from:
    bit.ly/2nx0NrR

Modeling

  • Coll, R, and D. Lajium. Modeling and the future of science learning, Springer, Models and Modeling, 2011, pp. 3-21
  • Models and modeling: An introduction, 2015. Retrieved from:
    bit.ly/2nxcDCl

Modeling – Assessment

Physics

Chemistry

  • Dukerich, L. “Applying modeling instruction to high school chemistry to improve students’ conceptual understanding.” J. Chem. Ed. 92 (8), 2015, pp. 1315-1319. Retrieved from:
    http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed500909w
  • Harrison, A., and D. Treagust. “Secondary students’ mental models of atoms and molecule: Implications for teaching chemistry.” Science Education, 80(5), 1996, pp. 509-534. Retrieved from:
    http://bit.ly/2n4Tj4k
  • Posthuma-Adams, E. “How the chemistry modeling curriculum engages students in seven science practices outlined by the college board.” J. Chem. Educ.,91(9), 2014, pp. 1284–1290. Retrieved from:
    http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed400911a

Biology

  • Laubichler, M., and G. Muller. “Models in Theoretical Biology.” 2007. Retrieved from:
    http://bit.ly/2nx0NrR

Earth and Space

Resources

Modeling

Modeling – Assessment

Physics

Chemistry

  • Modeling chemistry – underlying models/big ideas. Retrieved from:
    bit.ly/2n57KFf

Biology

Earth and Space

Learning Opportunities

  • Session 1 (Face to Face) – Math and Science Together
    A model to guide thinking about planning for instruction while teaching and reflecting on your teaching.
    • Your current model – a diagram that represents a model of the decisions you make as a teacher when planning for and teaching lessons and then reflecting on your success regarding the impact you have on the learner.
    • Introduce the “Teacher Decision-Making” article with a focus on the diagram on page 8.
    • Models and Modeling
  • Session 2 – Online PLC
    Complete assigned readings and prepare to discuss the questions listed below for Session 3. Bring written responses to Session 3 for the small group discussion.
    • What makes for a good model?
    • Why use models with students?
    • How do you choose a good model for your lesson/unit?
    • What are the limitations of models?
    • What if a model is too complex or too easy?
    • Do models address misconceptions? Can models cause misconceptions?
  • Session 3 (Face to Face) – Using Models in Teaching Science
    Now that you have read the resources, in a small group, compare your ideas about the questions below.
    • A paper-pencil model example

    Questions from Readings to Discuss in Small Groups

    • What makes for a good model?
    • Why use models with students?
    • How do you choose a good model for your lesson/unit?
    • What are the limitations of models?
    • What if a model is too complex or too easy?
    • Do models address misconceptions? Can models cause misconceptions?
    • Collect findings on poster; share with group – keep mixed groups.

    Some Examples of Models in Science

    • Explore additional models (chemistry examples)
    • Scaffolding of the complexity of models
    • MPS resources for Models and Modeling
    • Share examples of models you use and how you might increase the complexity

    Use the instructional strategy, “Modeling for Teaching Science.” Now that you have read the resources, in a small group, compare your ideas about the questions below.

    Small Groups Science

    • What is the general concept of modeling?
    • Examples of successful modeling
    • What is the specific strategy called Modeling?
    • What is the role of questioning and responding in teacher-student interactions during modeling?

    • Mixed Small Groups – Math and Science

      • What are common points of modeling between math and science in terms of student learning? How does it help the learner?
      • What are similarities and differences between modeling in math and science?
      • What are the similarities and differences between our assessing strategies?

      Why Use Models and Modeling with Science Learners?

      • NGSS Goals and Standards Connections – In a small science or math group with those who teach similar curriculum, examine NGSS or Math Common Core and identify and connections to models or modeling for concepts you teach.
  • Session 4 (Online PLC) – Using a Model or Doing Modeling with Students
    • Plan a lesson around models or modeling (that you haven’t done before). Include connections to three dimensions of the standards and your DCIs—with specific plans so that someone else could read your plan and attachments and teach the lesson—and include how you are going to assess what students learned as well as measure the overall effectiveness of the lesson.
    • Implement the lesson.
    • Assess Impact on Student Learning (student assessments, student artifacts).
  • Session 5 (Face to Face)
    • Work session focused on data analysis from taught lesson(s).
  • Session 6 (Online PLC)
    • Write up documentation of lesson and evidence; prepare for public presentation.
  • Session 7 (Face to Face) – Poster Session – Results of Using a Model or Modeling
    Final Reflection and Critique
    • What type of model did you use? What Modeling strategy did you use?
    • How did you integrate it into the lesson?
    • What specifically did you want students to be doing during the lesson that would be indicators of success?
    • What was some feedback from students and artifacts?
    • What would you change?

Submission Requirements

Submission Guidelines & Evaluation Criteria

To earn the micro-credential, you must receive a passing evaluation for Part 1 and 3 and a “Yes” for the artifacts submitted for Part 2.

Part 1. Overview Questions

Please provide responses to the following session questions:

  • Session 1a and 1b individual questions:

- How does the model on page 8 compare with your initial model you drew? What are the strengths and limitations of the model? How would having a more sophisticated and complex model affect the utilitarian use of the model when it comes to understanding your teaching or explaining the act of instruction to someone else, such as a peer, administrator, or parent?

- Then take a recent lesson and reflect on that lesson using the diagram on page 8 (two pages of reflection).

  • Session 2–3b individual questions:
    • What makes for a good model?
    • Why use models with students?
    • How do you choose a good model for your lesson/unit?
    • What are the limitations of models?
    • What if a model is too complex or too easy?
    • Do models address misconceptions? Can models cause misconceptions?
  • Group responses to Session 3, questions 4a-d:
    • What is the general concept of modeling?
    • Examples of successful modeling
    • What is the specific strategy called Modeling?
    • What is the role of questioning and responding in teacher-student interactions during modeling?

Part 2. Work Examples/Artifacts

To earn this micro-credential, please attach your lesson plan, which includes all of the following:

  • Connections to three dimensions of the standards
  • Connections to your DCIs
  • Specific plans (so that someone else could read your plan and attachments and teach the lesson)
  • How you are going to assess what students learned
  • How you are going to measure the overall effectiveness of the lesson
  • How you assess the impact on student learning (student assessments, student artifacts)
  • Reflective narrative of efforts and results

Part 3. Educator Reflection

Reflect on the effectiveness of the lesson from your perspective as a teacher.

  • What type of model did you use? What Modeling strategy did you use?
  • How did you integrate it into the lesson?
  • What specifically did you want students to be doing during the lesson that would be indicators of success?
  • How did the student artifacts inform you practice?
  • What was some feedback from students?
  • What would you change?

Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Requirements

Download to access the requirements and scoring guide for this micro-credential.
How to prepare for and earn this micro-credential - in a downloadable PDF document

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